The Encyclopedia of
Dumfries, Virginia 1700-1739

by Robert Hedges VIIII © -


1700 | 1710 | 1720 | 1730 |

This index represents what dates are included or refered to within this study of Dumfries, Virginia, in the earlier decades.
On the Potomac River side the Hundreds were:

Piscataway, erected 1670.
New Scotland, 1698.

The name New Scotland occurs in the Maryland Archives as early as 1688 and probably took this designation from a colony of Scotchmen who settled on the Eastern Branch of the Potomac River at a considerably earlier date, but were looked upon as " interlopers " and discouraged. Most of these eventually went to the neighborhood of Dumfries, lower down on, the river, where there was already a considerable number of their countrymen.

Maryland Archives I to XLIX, particularly no. 1-5, 8,11, 20 & 49.

MHM7


1702

Order dated May 28 1702; Ordered that all Navall officers of all and every the districts within this Colony make up their accompts of the impositions of liquors and serv'ts and slaves for all ships entered or shall be entered by them to the 24th day of June next and make oath to the same before Mr. Treasurer as ussuall . Executive Journal of Col Va. II. 246

ST1


1708

A list of all ships and vessels that have come from the coast of Africa and imported negroes into her Maj'ties Colony and Dominion of Virginia from the 24th day of June 1699 to the 12th day of October 1708 C.O.5 1316, 15ii p.52

ST1


1709

Negroes imported into Virginia from 24th June 1699 - 12th October 1709.
Medium for men and women may be reconned to be 㿀-㿊 per head for those sold by the "company' and 㿀-㿏 for those kinds sold by separate traders. Company - 679....
traders - 5,828......
totals -6,507. ............
Rappahannock Prices in 1712 = 㿀-㿈 per head

ST1


1710-1718

A list of all ships and vessels that have imported slaves into the district of Potomack River. Together with the number of slaves imported, of those dead, and not sold within fourty days, of those drawn back for exportation from the 10th of Xber, 1710 to the 10th of Xber 1718. Jany. 15 1718/9 C.O.5: 1320, R3, pp. 11, 13, 15 ,19. read Jun, 28, 1726. [1712 report 'post' no. 132. ] ST1


1713, Dec. 12

Discussing his 'Act for preventing frauds in Tobacco payments and for the better improving the staple of Tobacco, [29] which was passed December I2, 1713, Spotswood said to the Lords of Trade in his dispatch of December 29, 1713 : [30]

Heningsii 475: iv, 32

'This Law, therefore, by obliging all Planters to have their Tobacco view'd by a Sworn Officer in the manner y'r Lord'ps may see more fully from the several parts of the Act, has made provision against the exportation of all such Trash as is said to be allow'd by the Cust. Ho. Officers in the Out Ports as damaged Tobacco and thereafter frequently re-exported without the benefit of the Draw-back, and thus it is hoped the reputation of Virginia tobacco may be retrieved when none but such as is found to be worth paying the duty at home shall be sent to foreign markets. It has likewise very justly provided against the passing bad Tobacco in any manner of payments within this Colony, so that her Maj't's Quit Rents, several officers' Salarys and all the public credit will hereafter be rais'd by so much as is the difference between Trash and good Tobacco; for, as I, have before remark'd, it is the general notion of the Country that the worst sort is good enough for these purposes. Besides the convenient method that this Act establishes for the making all P'ments by the Agent's notes, which are to pass like BankBills, will give an opportunity to collect the q't rents at a cheaper Rate than hitherto they have been. The main design of the Port-Act, which was recommended to my Predecessor Govern'r Nott, to endeavour to get pass'd, is, I presume, compass'd by this Act, since that Ships will by means thereof be hereafter loaded in half the time they are now, and that the Collectors and Naval Officers may certainly know to a hogshead the Tobacco that is Shipt home to Great Brittain, and to a Pound that which is exported for the Plantations.í Specifically, Spotswood's law provided for the establishment of public store houses 'in the most convenyent manner for the ease of the Inhabitants, without regard to the bounds of the Countys . . . on or near to some good landing upon a Navigable River or Creek.' At these store houses it was required that all tobacco intended either for payment of public dues or fees or for export should be delivered to sworn 'Agents' [p.383] appointed by the Governor; whence the store houses soon came to be known as 'Agents Houses.' The Agents were to inspect and classify (as sweet scented or Oronoko) all tobacco by them received and, if found 'good, sound, well conditioned and free from all manner of trash,' to stamp the hogsheads officially and issue against them their demand notes in a numbered series. These notes were thereafter to be accepted in payment of all public dues and fees and to be current not only in the county where issued, but in adjacent counties within the limits of the nearest great rivers. [31] Masters of ships were required to take oath not to load any unstamped tobacco.

The Present State of Virginia, 1714 [C.O.5: 1317, No 27 ] Va Mag ii, 13 shows there were three agents houses in Stafford.. John Waugh and Henry Fitzhugh were agents.

Spottswood Letters ii, 49, Dec 29, 1713 Council Journals do not record the Agent's houses appointed under the Act of 1713. [n34]


1714

No list of the locations of Spotswood's Agents' Houses has come to light. [34] [34] Council Journals C.O. London. In 'Stafford we know with certainty only that there were three of them [35] and so must be content to conjecture that they were at Marlboroughtown, on Aquia and, what is here our' interest, on Quantico.

[35] The Present State of Virginia, 1714 [C.O.5: 1317, No 27 ] Va Mag ii, 13 shows there were three agents houses in Stafford.. John Waugh and Henry Fitzhugh were agents.

The designation in earlier acts of the two places here first named as town sites is sufficient warrant for confidence in assigning to them two of the Stafford agents' houses of 17I3; but as to the third, the deduction must be confessed to be on the principle post hoc. propter hoc. There is, however, evidence that as early as 1700 tobacco traders had pushed up the Potomac and were doing business above Aquia. Governor Nicholson left an important testimony for that year:

'Although there be few ships that ride there,' he said, referring to Stafford, [36] 'yet a great many sloops, etc., trade there from ships, who ride both on our Side and on Maryland side of Potomack, and Sometimes in our rivers. Potomack River is but narrow in the upper parts of Stafford so that there is an easy communication from Maryland, and with submission I think that there ought to be at least two Collectors and as many Naval Officers on each side of the river; for the upper parts now begin to be a place of great trade, and the river is navigable and inhabited for above 150 miles.'

[36] Nicholson to the Commissioners of the Customs, Aug 24, 1700 Cal Am. & W.I., 1700, p.499

LOPD


1714

CO5: 1317 P:41 27 Jan 1714
There is a fort on the south branch of the Rappahannock, and a fort on the Maherina River, near the tributary indians, with 12 rangers and one officer. The frontier has 24 Rangers.

LOPD


1717 June

Repeal of Spottswood's Tobacco act of 1713 , Disallowed by Crown.

The principle of the store house was thus established when Spotswood's act of 1713 was passed. Its novelty consisted in compulsory use and inspection. Although Spotswood said that the advantages of his act were generally recognised, and could point to an immediate rise in the price of tobacco ............p. 383

No list of the locations of Spotswood's Agents' Houses has come to light. [34] In 'Stafford we know with certainty only that there were three of them [35] and so must be content to conjecture that they were at Marlboroughtown, on Aquia and, what is here our' interest, on Quantico.

The designation in earlier acts of the two places here first named as town sites is sufficient warrant for confidence in assigning to them two of the Stafford agents' houses of 1713; but as to the third, the deduction must be confessed to be on the principle post hoc, propter hoc. There is, however, evidence that as early as 1700 tobacco traders had pushed up the Potomac and were doing business above Aquia. Governor Nicholson left an important testimony for that year:

LOPW


1718

.... South Potomac District of Virginia, Thomas Lee Recd. naval Off'r

No negroes imported from 25th Mar 1718- 25 mar 1727.
C.O.5:1320, R 55, p.339

ST1


1720

" At Glasgow, the second day of March, one Thousand, Seven hundred and Twenty years. The which day in presence of the Rt. Honble. John Bowman, Provost of the City of Glasgow, Peter Murdoch, Mr. John Orr, and Stephen Crowford, Blillies thereof, James Peldie, Dean of the Gild, and several of the Gild Council of the said city, the Honble George Mason, Esqr., Collonel of the County of Stafford in Potomack River, Virginia, is Admitted and Received Burgess and Gild Brother of this city: and the Whole Liberties, privileges, and immunities, belonging to a Burgess and Gild brother thereof are granted to him in most ample Form: Who gives his oath of Fidelity as Use is. Extracted furth of the Gild Books of the sd. City by mee.

Jo. Mc. GILCHRIST, Clk.

The following letter accompanied the Burgess ticket:

GLASGOW, March 3, l720.

Having received certain Information of the many Extraordinary Favours you have done to our merchants or their agents in Virginia we thought ourselves obliged in the name of our City to acknowledge your Goodness, and in Testimony hereof we do send you the compliment of the City a Burgess Ticket by which you are entitled to all the Rights and privileges and Immunities of a Burgess or Citizen of Glasgow.

Hitherto your Favours to our people have flowed from the wider motives of Hospitality, in time coming you will if possible multiply your goodness towards them when you can consider them not only as strangers but as Fellow Citizens with yourself. We wish you all happiness and prosperity and do most earnestly recommend you to the protection of the Almighty.

To the Hon. George Mason, Esq: Colon. in Stafford Co., Pottomack River, Virginia.

LGM Vol. 1 p.35


1726

CO5: 1320 R:14  
The Present State of Virginia for the Year 1726
Potomeck Collector   Henry Harrison
Naval Officers          Thomas Lee
District Office of Customs
Escheators- none listed
Stafford   
Acreage = Proprietors  
Tithables  = 1800  
Sheriff = William Stork
Coroners = Henry Fitzhugh
Justices of the Peace =  Rice Hooe, Thomas Hooper, Townsend Dade, 
Dade Massie, John Fitzhugh, Henry 
Fitzhugh, William Stork, Thomas Harrison,  
Quorum = John Linton, Chas Broadwater, Auble Thornton, Robert
Alexander,
Abraham Farrow,  French Mason, Rice Hooe jr
Burgesses = 
Tobacco Agents = Geo ________  Wm ________
County Clerk = Catesby Cocke
Surveyor = Henry Corriers or Connors
Ministers =  Wm Stewart, ______ Scott
Parishes  = St Pauls Overwharton
Militia  202 Dragoons?/370 Foot?
Lieutenants =  Robert Carter
Tobacco Type = Arronoco
 

1727

Naval Officer Returns exist for 23 complete reporting years between 1727-1758. and 9 years between 1759- 1772. Before 1735 the records are April to March 30.

Thomas Lee reported no negroes shipped from Africa between Sept, 29 1727-Apr 25 , 1728 to South Potomac.
C.O. 5; 1321, f.153, 155, 158
The number of guns, men and descriptions are listed by District in the original records for each vessel.
C.O. 5: 1445: Henry Lee is Naval Officer for South Potomac.

VaM5


1729

CO5: 1320 R:144

  
The Present State of Virginia for the Year  7 Feb 1729
Potomeck Collector   Henry Harrison
Naval Officers          Thomas Lee
District Office of Customs
Escheators- none listed
Stafford   
Acreage = Proprietors  
Tithables  = 2060  
Sheriff = Abraham Farrow
Coroners = Dade Massie
Justices of the Peace =Anthony Thornton, Henry Fitzhugh, Chas
Broadwater, Abraham Farrow, French 
Mason, John Fitzhugh, Townsend Dade, Thomas Harrison,  Dade
Massie,
Quorum = James McCarty, Elias ______, Thomas Grigsby, John
Washington, William Triplett, William 
Linton, Francis Aubrey, Peter Lodgman
Burgesses = Anthony Thornton, John Fitzhugh
Tobacco Agents = ________  ________
County Clerk = Catesby Cocke
Surveyor = James Thomas
Ministers =  Wm Stewart, ______ Scott
Parishes  = St Pauls Overwharton
Militia  202 Dragoons?/370 Foot?
Lieutenants =  Robert Carter Esq

1730

Second Custom House established. 1730. As narrated, the first authentic Custom House on the was established in 1713, when Governor Spotswood established an "Agents House" for the administration of his tobacco law.[#l1] This Agent House was for the benefit of the Scotch, at first interlopers in the tobacco trade on the river; then after the final union of England and Scotland in 1707, accredited merchants. Governor Gooch renewed the privilege in 1730, and at that date additional and larger warehouses for a more extensive trade were built.
Letters of Fairfax Harrison & Callahan.
DWMQ1 see Notes #9 & 11


1730

30 Nov 1730 R:143 CO5
Act for Erecting a new county on the heads of Stafford and King George County
An Act for making a new parish on the heads of Overwharton Parish in Stafford Co.
18 Jul 1732 S:11 CO5
The 17th Act was to divide Prince William into two parishes.

29 Dec 1730 R:135 CO5
3 shillings duty @ hhgs for having tobacco examined, stamped & nailed HHgs valued at £ 4 or £ 5 Henings


1730

The first unequivocal record of the community now available is the provision in Gooch's tobacco act of 1730 for a 'public store house,' later known as a 'ware house' on Quantico. [40] Henings iv, 247


1730

At the mouth of Hunting Creek a tobacco warehouse had been established by 1730 as a point where the crops of planters in the vicinity could be inspected and shipped and duties collected. [23] A great many such places throughout Virginia and Maryland had been so designated after the repeal of the last general town and port acts.

______ n23


1731

The Dumfries -Shennandoah Rd. originally ran along the north run of Quantico Creek beginning at the warehouse at the Potomac path at least from 1731 and was moved in 1761, to the ridge between the forks of Quantico.....beginning at Murray's Landing...... Journal H B 1758-1761 pp. 219-230

LOPW see note pg 506 n75.


1731

22 Dec 1731 R:176 CO5 The Act of 1713 placed one man in each warehouse and a 5/ @ hhgs fee to the Inspector for every passed hhgs The new Act placed three men in a warehouse, two of which had to pass the tobacco, weigh, mark the cask for weight and owner etc, and receive a salary of £ 60:00 @ annum Henings


1731

7 Apr 1731 Exec. Jour.

QUANTICO & HUNTING CREEK.......... [Tobacco inspectors] Francis Awbrey, Benj. Strother{ also Falmouth & Fredericksburg }, Cadwalladr Dade

The Governour with the advice of the Council was pleas'd to nominate Justices of the Peace for the newly erected County of Prince William viz Thomas Harrison, Dennis McCarty, Wm. Linton, Francis Awbrey, Robt Jones, Burr Harrison & Moses Quarles of the Quorum & Leonard Barker, Wm Harrison, Valentine Barker, John Wright, John Allen, Wm hackney & Joseph Hudnall Gent. An also to Appoint Robt Jones Gent. Sheriff of the said County of Prince William for the ensuing year.

On the Application of the Inhabitance of Prince William County......the Court.........Occaquan..........Court House, prison, Pillory & Stocks according to Law...... with..........speed.

Ordered That the surveyor of Prince William County do .........from Chappawansuck to Deep run to ascertain the Bounds between the said county & those of Stafford & King George .........Act of Assembly.

CCV


1731

10 Jul 1731 R: 170 CO5
great tobacco crop growing, commissioners appointed to direct the building of warehouses and wharfs,


1732

A tobacco inspection house on Quantico Creek had been authorized and built in 1732, but after the town was established, private warehouses in which to store the tobacco awaiting inspection, were built by the Grahams and others.

LOPW


1732

22 Oct 1732 - Exec Journals.

Tobacco Inspector at:

  • QUANTICO = John Turley & Thomas Osbourne
  • Hunting Creek = John Awbrey & Lewis Elzey,
  • Falmouth = Anthony Strother & Francis Thornton,
  • Pohich = Edward Berry, Francis Awbrey.
The Inspectors of the several warehouses make application ....for payment of the watchmen appointed at the several houses. It is the opinion of this board & accordingly Ordered that where the said watchmen have diligently perform'd their duty they be paid for the same after the rate of 20s per month for the time of their attendance in that service out of his Majesties Revenue of 2s per hhd.

30 Mar 1732 S:6 CO5

No ships arrive in the northern neck during Jan and Feb. Four warehouses were burned within a month, A Proclamation was issued offering £ 100:00:00 and a pardon for information. . . insurrection caused by the Act for inspecting and burning tobacco. The low quality tobacco was to be burned instead of itís return to the Planter who could then either try to get another inspector to allow it or could sell direct to a ship's master. . .

30 Mar 1732 S:7 CO5

The Dialogue between Thomas Sweetsented and William Oronoco

27 May 1732 S:8 CO5

The partial application of the new tobacco burning law has caused a tumult in the Northern Neck, the false packers remain discontented. . .

18 Jul 1732 . . . S:11 CO5

The 9th Act was to appoint Commissioners to locate warehouses at more convenient locations.


1732

1732, May
Mason's Ferry..... Just below the mouth of Quantico Creek over the [Potomac] river, to the landing place at Collo. George Mason's [Chickamuxon creek] in Maryland, the price for a man; 1/6p. an for a horse 1/6p.

Henings Vol. IV, p.362.
LGM Vol I


1732

Virginia Almanacs.
"If you were the only Person concerned in making Tobacco, and carre'd on the whole Trade by yourself, it would then be cruel, not to say unjust, to restrain you either Way; because, the Consequence of your Management would advantage no other Man, neither would it injure any other; but when the Public is taken into the account, 'tis quite another Argument, as the whole Country is engaged in the same Trade, every Man in the Country will be more or less affected by the Contrivances of unfair Dealers." (Dialogue between Thomas SweetScented, William Oronoco, Planters, both men of good Understanding, and Justice. Love- Country, who can speak for himself. A copy of this pamphlet, the third edition of which was printed in Williamsburg in 1732, is preserved in the John Carter Brown Library. Its anonymous author was the Governor, Sir William Gooch.)


1732

In the act of 1732" it is recited that the original 'Public Store house,' built on Quantico 'upon Robert Brent's land,' was burned and another was substituted on the land of Richard Brit. These were both at the head of navigation of the creek where it was crossed by the original Potomac Path (as it still is by the state highway) and where John Graham subsequently acquired his lands. As early as May, 1740, the Scots had begun to agitate for a town here. They met determined opposition from Valentine Peyton, who insisted that if any town was to be established in Prince William, it must be at the Court House on the lower side of Occoquan where he, himself, had interests. Although the confident Scots adroitly amended their petition, in the light of this opposition, to provide for towns on both Quantico and Occoquan, Peyton was irreconcilable, and was able to persuade the county court to refuse to certify the proposal to the Assembly. This was a breach of ' privilege, and resulted in discipline by the Assembly of the Prince William justices who had been guilty of it; but in the end Peyton succeeded in having the petition rejected, not [p.387] only in 1740 but again in 1742 and 1744. [48] Journals H.B. 1727-1740, pp. 413-414, 429; 1742-1749, pp.10, 25, 28, 91.

CCV


1734

That Burr Harrison late Inspector at Quantico Warehouse be removed from his Office for his Misbehavior and that Mr. John Diskin be appointed in his room.

[Irregular shipping of tobacco, not stripping off the cast and examining the tare....quicker dispatch by only opening one head and removing some samples... There was a mass removal of Inspectors.]

VaM5


1734

p.102, Mason Papers 1:191 1734, the General Assembly had forbidden the killing of deer between 1 January and 31 August, setting a fine on illicit hunters of 15/0 per head slaughtered.

GGM


1734

.....As early as 1670 the German traveler John Lederer had observed when he visited the site of Fredericksburg, that the Indians "plant abundant grain, reap three crops in a summer and........their granery suppl[ies] all adjacent parts."........In 1734, the Tobacco inspectors at Fredericksburg, Falmouth, and six other warehouses were the highest paid of the fourty-four inspectors in the colony. Salaries were based on the volume of business transacted at the warehouse, and........../....as early as 1713-1714 York and Rappahannock customs districts.......accounted for 59% of receits from Virginia tobacco.

VaM5


1735

12 June 1735 Exec. Jour.

Collo Charles Carter having exhibited a Complaint against Thos Osbourn & John Diskin Gent. Inspectors at Quantico Warehouse in Prince William County & Divers Depositions of Witnesses taken by Orders of the County Court being read at the Board & the Complainant as well as Thos osbourn who appeared for himself & his partner being fully heard. It is the Opinion of this Board that the said Inspectors have failed in the Discharge of their duty but for as much as the inspection of this year is near expired, It is Ordered that they be continued in their office till the last of this month & for delivering out the Tobacco which shall then remain unshipped & that they be remov'd from their Offices.

1 Nov. 1735 Exec. Jour.

The following persons were appointed Inspectors at the several warehouses hereafter mentioned Viz At:

QUANTICO........Moses Hinton & Robt Jones.
Yeocomico....Daniel Tibbs & Sam Oldham. [ 9 more]


1735

Naval Officer Returns exist for 23 complete reporting years between 1727-1758. and 9 years between 1759- 1772. Before 1735 the records are April to March 30. After 1735 the records are from March to February 28/9.

CCV


1736

William Powell wed Eleanor d/o Valentine Peyton in Dumfries 1736
Col. Levin Powell born 1737
Wm. Dunlop . . . .1737
wed Mary Pope ( -1739)


1736

John Walker, Merchant of Dumfries, 1736.
DWMQ - Fairfax Harrison Letter.


1737

1738 - 16 May= UNITY [60tons](registered DUMFRIES on 16 Sept 1737)[built Brit. 1728]

ST


1738-RENT ROLLS - Prince William County, VA

Fauquier Co. was formed in 1759, being taken from Prince William Co. and named The Rent rolls of Prince William Co. (l738) are to be found later in Fauquier Co.


Ahbott, Roger
Arrington, Wansford
Ash, Francis
Ashmore, Widow

Baker, Charles
Ball, Alexander

Barton, Thomas 
Baylis, William
Berry,Thomas
Bilings, Jasper
Bland, John
Brinbitt, Henry
Bronaugh, Jeremiah
Bronaugh, Capt. Jeramiah
Brooks, Thomas
Buchanan, Joseph, decd.
Buckner, Richard
Bush, John

Calk, James or Joseph
Calvert, George
Calvert, George jr
Calvert, Sarah
Canterbury, John
Carr, John
Champ,John
Champ, Major John
Chambers, Joseph
Chapman, Joseph
Chapman, Joseph heirs
Chilton, Capt. Thomas
Clemont, Alexander
Combs, Emmanuel
Combs, Joseph
Compton, illiam
Comyers, Davis
 Cpram, William
Corbin, John
Cornwell, Charles
Cottenwell, Thomas
Crouch, William
Crup, John
Cruppner, Richard
Cummings, Malachi

Dermott, Michael

Earle, Samuel
Edy, Samuel

Farrow, John (orphan)
Farrow, William
Ficklin, William
Floyd, Henry
Foster, William
French, James

Garner, John (orphan)
Garner, Thomas
Garner, Vincent 
Gibson, John, Gent. of North Carolina
Glasscock, John

Goslin, John, de'cd.
Graham, Howard
Grant, John (inspector)
Grayson, Benjamin
Grayson, Capt. Benjamin
Grigg, John
Grubbs, Richard

Hall, Widow
Halley  Henry
Hancoch, Scarlett
Harper, George
Harrison, Burr
Harrison, Thomas
Harrison, Thomas jr
Hedges, John
Hedges, Robert
Holtzclaw, Jacob and John
Hopper, Blagrove
Hopper, John
Hudnall, Joseph, William, and Thomas

Johnson, Jesse
Johnson, John
Johnson, Tolito

Lambert, Hugh
Linton, Widow
Linton, John
Linton, Moses
Ludwell, Philip

Marr, Chris
Marr, Daniel
Marr, John
Martin, Joseph
McComkry Rev William
McDonald, Donald
Minton, Joseph
Morgan, Charles
Moss, Matthew

Neale, Roswell
Nevill, George
Nounan, Widow

Routt, Wil1iam
Russell, William
Sarlson, Nicholas
Smith, William
Spiller, William
Stamps, Thomas
Stone, Thomas
 Stribblings, Capt. Thomas
Strothers, William
Tackitt, Lewis
Taylor, Charles
Thorn, William
Toward, Orphans

Veale, Morris
Vicars, Orphans

Wallace, Burr
Welch, Thomas
Whitledge, John
Whitledge, Thomas
Whitlidge,William
Williams, Jonas
Williams, William
Winright, John
Wright, Joseph


1739

...........another decade by the testimony of a surviving tombstone bearing the date 1739, erected in the vicinity of the warehouse to the memory of 'William Dunlop, merchant, son of Alexander Dunlop, Greek Professor in the University of Glasgow.' He was the resident representative of one of the leading mercantile families of Glasgow, who, throughout the eighteenth century, did business in Virginia tobacco under two firm names, 'Colin Dunlop & Son' and 'Dunlop Crosse & Co.
[42] Glascow, by Pagan 1847, p. 78

LOPW


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